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Citation Styles

CSE Citation-Name Style

CSE has three citation styles, in CSE Citation-Name references are listed alphabetically and then numbered in your reference list. When citing references in the text of your poster, you will refer to them by number.  Use the appropriate reference number in superscript after the information you are citing.

CSE style uses a reference list, not a bibliography, which means that you only list items cited in your poster. There must be agreement between the sources cited in your work and the sources listed in the references section.

CSE Citation Style Formatting instructions

This video will lead you through finding the elements to appropriately ciate a book in CSE Citation-Name style. (4:36min)

Book Citation Examples:

Chapter of a book:

Template: Author(s). Title. Edition. Publisher location: Publisher, Year. Extent*.  Notes**.

8. Honigsbaum M. The fever trail: in search of the cure for malaria. New York: Picador; 2003. Chapter 2, The cure; p.19-38.

Chapter of an edited book, where each chapter has its own author:

Template: Author(s) Chapter title. In: Editors(s), editors. Title. Publisher location: Publisher, Year. Extent*.  Notes**.

9. Gillaspy AF, Landolo JJ. Staphylococcus. In: Schaechter M, editor. Encyclopedia of microbiology. 3rd ed. Boston (MA): Elsevier/Academic Press; 2009. Vol. 2, p. 293-303.

10. Tramont EC. Treponema pallidum (syphilis). In: Mandell GL, Bennet JE, Dolin R, editors. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practices of infectious diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2010. p. 3035-3053.

NOTE: Even though this second source has two volumes, many sections, and chapters, these do not have to be listed as part of the extent because this source has continuous pagination (e.g. volume 2 starts with page 1907). One can find the appropriate chapter in the multi-volume set just by knowing the page range.

Chapter in an electronic book:

Template: Author(s) or Editor(s). Title [Internet]. Edition. Publisher location: Publisher, Year [cited date]. Extent*.  Notes**.

2. Kimberlin DW, Long SS, Pickering LK, Baker CJ, American Academy of Pediatrics, editors. Red book: 2012 report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Elk Grove Village (IL): American Academy of Pediatrics; c2012 [cited 2014 May 2]. Pertussis (whooping cough); p. 553-556. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip&db=nlebk&AN=567191&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_553

Chapter in an electronic book where each chapter has its own author:

Template: Author(s) Chapter title. In: Editors(s), editors. Title [Internet]. Publisher location: Publisher, Year [cited date]. Extent*.  Notes**.

1. Aldridge S. Malaria. In: Lerner BW, Lerner KL, editors. Infectious diseases: in context [Internet]. Detroit: Gale; c2008 [cited 2010 May 5]. p. 515-522. Available from: http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE|1RIG&v=2.1&u=seattlepu&it=aboutBook&p=GVRL&sw=w

NOTES:

URL is given in the notes section for online resources, starting with Available from:
 *Extent is the part of the book you are referencing: volume, chapter, chapter title, page numbers for the full chapter.
   **There are not usually notes in a print book, but for online books this is where you put the URL or DOI.

This video will lead you through finding the elements to appropriately cite a journal article in CSE Citation-Name style. (3:46min)

 

Journal Citation Examples:

 

Print Journal Template: Author(s). Article Title. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year;volume(issue):page numbers. Notes*.

1. Mahmud K, Vance ML. Human growth hormone and aging. New Engl J Med. 2003;348(2):2256-2257.

3. Smith EW, Vance ML, Bartel D, Joy E, Janus J, Qui W, Pa J, Hobbes C, Cant G, Kant W, and others. Avian flu in China. New Engl J Med. 2005; 372: 2275-2282.

Online Journal Template: Author(s). Article Title. Abbreviated Journal Title [Internet]. Year[cited date];volume(issue):page numbers or electronic record number. Notes*.

2. Martins KAO, Steffens JT, van Tongeren SA, Wells JB, Bergeron AA, Dickson SP, Dye JM, Salazar AM, Bavari S. Toll-like receptor agonist augments virus-like particle-mediated protection from Ebola virus with transient immune activation. PLoS One [Internet]. 2014 Feb [cited 2014 Apr 18];9(2):e89735. Available from: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0089735 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089735

NOTES: 

If you have a doi for your article, please include it at the end of your citation in the following format: doi:10.1007/s10344-014-0825-0

Journal titles must be abbreviated using NLM format. To search for the official an abbreviation by journal name consult: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals  (please note - one word journal titles are not abbreviated, for example the for the journal Nature, the title would still be Nature)

*There are not usually any notes in a print journal citation, but for online journal citations this is where you put the URL and DOI.

This video will lead you through finding the elements to appropriately cite a website in CSE Citation-Name style. (5min)

Webpage Citation Examples:

Template: Author(s). Page title [Internet]. Publisher Location: Publisher; Year [updated date; cited date]. Notes*.

1. Pertussis: practice essentials [Internet]. New York (NY): WebMD LLC; c2014 [updated 2014 Jan 31; cited 2014 Apr 26]. Available from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/967268-overview

2. Plague: ecology and transmission [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); [updated 2012 Jun 13; cited 2014 Apr 26]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/plague/transmission/index.html

NOTES:

All website references must include a date, location, and publisher name -  if you cannot find this information you should say [date unknown], [place unknown], or [publisher unknown] as appropriate. Do some searching - e.g. check about us section - before determining that one of these things is truly unknown.  (excepton: Government website reference do not include the date (e.g. c2014) and this element can be omitted without noting [date unknown])

All other elements of the reference - e.g. author or updated date - are optional, simply omit if you cannot determine them.

*the URL is given in the notes section for webpages, starting with Available from:

Project images do not have an entry in the reference list.  Instead give the full reference as part of the image description rather (see example below). This means that sources used only for their images should not be included in the references section of your project.  

Use the appropriate CSE reference format for where your found your image: If you are taking the image from a book, it will have a CSE book format reference.  In the example below, the image source is given using the website citation format because the image was found on a webpage. If this image had been found in a journal article, the description would include a reference using the CSE style for an article in the Source section.

Each image should have a title above the image, and the description beneath the image. The image description must include a full CSE citation unless:

  • the image comes from a source that is also used in the text of your project AND THEN is also used for an image. In this case, you may give the appropriate superscript number at the end of the image title and omit the reference from the image description.
  • the image is your intellectual property, e.g. your own drawing or photograph, then simply say, "Source: Author" after the image description.
  • the image is part of the poster background AND is either free clip art or your intellectual property, then no reference is needed (title and description may also be omitted).

Example of an image found on a webpage, note title above image and description (including CSE website reference) below image:

Bacillus anthracis

A photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis bacteria
using Gram-stain technique.  Source: Bacillus anthracis gram [Internet]. San Francisco (CA): Wikimedia Commons; c2009 [updated 2009 Mar 30; cited 2014 Mar 28]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bacillus_anthracis_Gram.jpg

This video leads you through the steps of creating a reference list in Citation-Name sequence. (1:31min)

Special notes about in-text citations and creating CSE reference list:  

In-text citations:

  • The in-text citation should be put as close as possible to information it is referring to and outside of any punctuation, for example: "...the cinder ballast of the railroad track1 and to sterile strips of land along highways.2
  • If a section of bulleted lines all pertain to the same source, then introduce the list with a superscripted phrase such as, “according to Smith there are four factors:1” then present the list.
  • Place the superscript number at the end of the caption when citing all graphs, pictures or illustrations from sources that are also used in the text of your paper.  (If your image is from a source not also used in the text of your paper, simply cite your source directly under the image.)
  • There is no need to use citations in your Abstract unless you are quoting a source. For the rest of the poster, whenever you have stated some fact or figure, particular thought, or quote that came from a source you consulted, you must cite the reference in the text of your poster, either at the beginning of a bulleted section, or at the end of a bulleted statement.

Reference List:

  • Entries in the reference list should be alphabetized and numbers assigned, these numbers will then be used in the text of the poster to link back to the reference list.
  • Website and book references should include date, location, and publisher name – if you cannot find this information you should say [date unknown], [place unknown], or [publisher unknown] as appropriate.
  • If you have a doi for your article, please include it at the end of your citation in the following format: doi:10.1007/s10344-014-0825-0
  • Journal titles are abbreviated.  You may search for abbreviations by journal name, or if your journal is not listed, consult this resource to identify how specific words are abbreviated
  • In an individual reference, authors names should be listed in the order that they are given in the paper - do not reorder this list. Additionally, when there are 1 to 10 authors, all authors should be listed. If there are more than 10 authors, the 1st to 10th  are listed, followed by “and others”.   For example:

   12. Smith EW, Vance ML, Bartel D, Joy E, Janus J, Qui W, Pa J, Hobbes C, Cant G, Kant W, and others. Avian flu in China. New Engl J Med. 2005; 372: 2275-82.

CSE Citation-Name Style

In CSE Citation-Name format references are listed alphabetically and then the reference list is numbered. When citing in the text of your document, you will refer to them by number.  Use the appropriate reference number in superscript within or at the end of a paragraph or bulleted line. 

CSE style uses a reference list, not a bibliography, which means that you only list items cited in your poster. There must be agreement between the sources cited in your work and the sources listed in the reference section.

Special notes about in-text citations and creating CSE references:  

In-text citations:

  • The in-text citation should be put as close as possible to information it is referring to and within the period, for example: "...the cinder ballast of the railroad track1 and to sterile strips of land along highways2."
  • If a section of bulleted lines all pertain to the same source, then introduce the list with a superscripted phrase such as, “according to Smith there are four factors:1” then present the list.
  • Place the superscript number at the end of the caption when citing all graphs, pictures or illustrations from sources that are also used in the text of your paper.  (If your image is from a source not also used in the text of your paper, simply cite your source directly under the image.)
  • There is no need to use citations in your Abstract unless you are quoting a source. But, in the rest of the poster, whenever you have stated some fact or figure, particular thought or quote that came from a source you consulted, you must cite the publication in the text or at the end of a bulleted statement or bulleted section.

Reference List:

  • Website and book references should include date, location, and publisher name – if you cannot find this information you should say [date unknown], [place unknown], or [publisher unknown] as appropriate.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated. Consult: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7251/ to identify how specific words are abbreviated. To search for an abbreviation by journal name consult: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals
  • When there are 2 to 10 authors, all should be named, including the 10th author in a reference; if there are more than 10 authors, the 1st to 10th  are listed, followed by “and others”.  For example:

12. Smith EW, Vance ML, Bartel D, Joy E, Janus J, Qui W, Pa J, Hobbes C, Cant G, Kant W, and others. Avian flu in China. N Engl J Med. 2005; 372: 2275-82.