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Citation Styles

Chicago Style Basics

For historians, Chicago style is the preferred way to cite resources.

Chicago uses a Notes and Bibliography System, where a footnote is used for in-text citations and a corresponding bibliographic entry goes at the end.

Chicago citations include items like author's name, title, publication date and publisher information.

For more information and helpful examples, see the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL).

Chicago Style Examples: Notes

In-text citations in Chicago Style take the form of footnotes, as shown below:


Note that:

- A footnote can contain multiple citations

- Footnote citations differ slightly from Bibliography citations (see box below)

Chicago Style Examples: Bibliography

An example of a Chicago Style Bibliography is below:

Chicago Bibliography Example

Note that:

- Citations are organized alphabetically by author's last name

- Bibliography citations are formatted slightly differently than footnote citations (see box above)

Chicago Style for Citing Archival Items

Items from an archives are cited slightly differently than books, journal articles, or web pages. Instructions for how to cite archival material appear in the Chicago Manual of Style under the heading "Manuscript Collections" in section 14.232. Some examples are below:


Item title, Date, Collection title, Box number, Folder number, Repository name, City name.

Executive Committee Meeting Minutes, April 1968, Board of Trustees Records, Box 55, Folder 12, Seattle Pacific University Archives, Seattle.

Memorandum, "Prayer for Dr. King," 6 April 1968, President's Office Collection, Cascade College Archives, Portland, OR.


Name of collection. Repository name.

Board of Trustees Records. Seattle Pacific University Archives, Seattle.

President's Office Collection, Cascade College Archives, Portland, OR.

Be consistent in how you render dates, item titles, and collection names. Locations of well-known repositories (Princeton University, National Archives) may be omitted.

For more examples, consult this Purdue University guide - scroll to the bottom of the page.