Skip to main content

Citation Styles: CSE- Citation Name

CSE Citation-Name Style

In CSE Citation-Name format references are listed alphabetically and then the reference list is numbered. When citing in the text of your document, you will refer to them by number.  Use the appropriate reference number in superscript within or at the end of a paragraph or bulleted line. 

CSE style uses a reference list, not a bibliography, which means that you only list items cited in your poster. There must be agreement between the sources cited in your work and the sources listed in the reference section.

Special notes about in-text citations and creating CSE references:  

In-text citations:

  • The in-text citation should be put as close as possible to information it is referring to and within the period, for example: "...the cinder ballast of the railroad track1 and to sterile strips of land along highways2."
  • If a section of bulleted lines all pertain to the same source, then introduce the list with a superscripted phrase such as, “according to Smith there are four factors:1” then present the list.
  • Place the superscript number at the end of the caption when citing all graphs, pictures or illustrations from sources that are also used in the text of your paper.  (If your image is from a source not also used in the text of your paper, simply cite your source directly under the image.)
  • There is no need to use citations in your Abstract unless you are quoting a source. But, in the rest of the poster, whenever you have stated some fact or figure, particular thought or quote that came from a source you consulted, you must cite the publication in the text or at the end of a bulleted statement or bulleted section.

Reference List:

  • Website and book references should include date, location, and publisher name – if you cannot find this information you should say [date unknown], [place unknown], or [publisher unknown] as appropriate.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated. Consult: to identify how specific words are abbreviated. To search for an abbreviation by journal name consult:
  • When there are 2 to 10 authors, all should be named, including the 10th author in a reference; if there are more than 10 authors, the 1st to 10th  are listed, followed by “and others”.  For example:

12. Smith EW, Vance ML, Bartel D, Joy E, Janus J, Qui W, Pa J, Hobbes C, Cant G, Kant W, and others. Avian flu in China. N Engl J Med. 2005; 372: 2275-82.

Citing Books in CSE

This video will lead you through finding the elements to appropriately ciate a book in CSE Citation-Name style. (4:36min)

Citing Books in CSE - examples

 Section of a book with an editor:

9. Gillaspy AF, Iandolo JJ. Staphylococcus. In: Schaechter M, editor. Encyclopedia of microbiology. 3rd ed. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier/Academic Press; 2009. Vol. 2, p. 293-303.

NOTE:  articles within many encyclopedias or reference books have a separate author(s) from the editor, and both have to be cited in the reference. A volume number (e.g. Vol.4) is only needed if the pagination is not continuous across volumes (e.g. volume 2 starts again with page 1). Include the full page range for the article cited.

10. Tramont EC. Treponema pallidum (Syphilis). In: Mandell GL, Bennet JE, Dolin R, editors. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practices of infectious diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2010. p. 3035-3053.

NOTE: Even though this source has two volumes, many sections, and chapters, these do not have to be listed because this source has continuous pagination (e.g. volume 2 starts with page 1907). One can find the chapter just by knowing the page range.

Specific example: ACP Medicine (one of the reference books) uses a slightly different format because the book does not have continuous pagination and also has several sections.

4. Chow AW. Anaerobic infections. In: Nabel EG, editor. ACP medicine. New York: Decker Intellectual Properties; 2009. Sect.7, Chap. V, p. 1-18.

NOTE: The current date of 2009 reflects the date for this particular chapter. Each chapter’s date is on the lower right-hand page corner of the chapter. Sect. 7 refers to the section of ACP Medicine on Infectious Diseases.

Electronic Sources:

2. Aldridge S. Malaria. In: Lerner BW, Lerner KL, editors. Infectious diseases in context [Internet]. Detroit: Gale; c2008 [cited 2010 May 5]. p. 515-522. Available from: id=GALE|9781414429632&v=2.1&u=seattlepu&it=aboutBook&p=GVRL&sw=w

Citing Journal Articles in CSE

This video will lead you through finding the elements to appropriately ciate a journal article in CSE Citation-Name style. (3:46min)

Citing Journal Articles in CSE - examples

Journal Article Examples:

1. Mahmud K, Vance ML. Human growth hormone and aging. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(2):2256-2257.

2. Martins KAO, Steffens JT, van Tongeren SA, Wells JB, Bergeron AA, Dickson SP, Dye JM, Salazar AM, Bavari S. Toll-like receptor agonist augments virus-like particle-mediated protection from Ebola virus with transient immune activation. PLoS One [Internet]. 2014 Feb [cited 2014 Apr 18];9(2):e89735. Available from:

3. Smith EW, Vance ML, Bartel D, Joy E, Janus J, Qui W, Pa J, Hobbes C, Cant G, Kant W, and others. Avian flu in China. N Engl J Med. 2005; 372: 2275-82.

Citing Webpages in CSE

This video will lead you through finding the elements to appropriately ciate a website in CSE Citation-Name style. (5min)

Citing Wepages in CSE - Examples

1. Pertussis: practice essentials [Internet]. New York (NY): WebMD LLC; c2014 [updated 2014 Jan 31; cited 2014 Apr 26]. Available from:

2. Plague: ecology and transmission [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Center for Disease Control and Prevention (US); [updated 2012 Jun 13; cited 2014 Apr 26]. Available from:

Citing Images in CSE - for this poster project

The CSE manual is not very clear about how to cite images in a poster, so for the sake of clarity I have created the following guidelines for citing images.  Your reference list should only include sources that you cited in the text of your paper.  Images should be cited directly under the image.

Citation for an image found on the web:

A photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis bacteria
using Gram-stain technique.

Source: Bacillus anthracis Gram [Internet]. San Francisco (CA): Wikimedia Commons; c2009 [updated 2009 Mar 30; cited 2014 Mar 28]. Available from:

Images must include a caption and source information. -- exception: source information need not be included for your own drawings or photographs.

Formatting your References in Citation-Name style

This video leads you through the steps of creating a reference list in Citation-Name sequence. (1:31min)