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Important Information about APA

APA style was developed by the American Psychological Association and is the reference and citation style for Education writing and scholarship.

When looking at online examples or using citation generators, be sure that you are interacting with the Seventh (7th) Edition of APA.

The examples on this site come from APA's Style Site. You may also find the APA Style Blog to be helpful.

There are several things to pay attention to when you are working on a paper in APA style:

  • APA Paper Format and Grammar Guide
  • In-Text Citations
  • Reference list
    • One of the most common questions students have is about making a hanging indent for the Reference. Watch this  video for three easy ways to make a hanging indent.

    • When putting together a citation or checking one that was automatically generated, pay attention to:

      • Whether you have all the necessary elements. Make sure you know what type of source you have!

      • What order the elements go in.

      • Which items need to be italicized.

      • What type of capitalization a title gets.

Basic APA Citation Style


Basic Format:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.


One author:

 Phillips, S. (2010). The poetics of the everyday: Creative repetition in modern American verse.

   Columbia University Press.


Two authors:

 Zamora, L. P. & Faris, W. B. (1995).  Magical realism: Theory, history, community. Duke University Press.



Book with one editor:

 Eldridge, R. (Ed.). (2009).  The Oxford handbook of philosophy and literature. Oxford University Press.



Book with two or more editors:

Newburger, H. , Birch, E. L., & Wachter, S. M.  (Eds.). (2011).  Neighborhood and life chances: How

   place matters in modern America. University of Pennsylvania Press.




Scholarly Journal

Basic Format: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.


Todd, N. R.,  Houston, J. D., &  Odahl-Ruan, C. A.. (2014). Preliminary validation of the sanctification of social justice scale. Psychology Of  Religion And Spirituality, 6(3), 245-256. 


From an Online Database such as Academic Search Premier with DOI

Richardson, J. W. & Sauers, N. J. (2014). Social justice in India: Perspectives from school leaders in diverse contexts. Management In Education, 28(3), 106-109.



From APA Style Guide Online

Webpage on a Website

Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

Woodyatt, A. (2019, September 10). Daytime naps once or twice a week may be linked to a healthy heart, researchers say. CNN.

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death.

    Parenthetical citations: (Fagan, 2019; National Institute of Mental Health, 2019; Woodyatt, 2019; World Health Organization, 2018)
    Narrative citations: Fagan (2019), National Institute of Mental Health (2019), Woodyatt (2019), and World Health Organization (2018)

  •     Provide as specific a date as is available on the webpage. This might be a year only; a year and month; or a year, month, and day.
  •     Italicize the title of a webpage.
  •     When the author of the webpage and the publisher of the website are the same, omit the publisher name to avoid repetition (as in the World Health Organization example).
  •     When contents of a page are meant to be updated over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference (as in the Fagan example).
  •     Use the webpage on a website format for articles from news websites such as CNN and HuffPost (these sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers). Use the newspaper article category for articles from newspaper websites such as The New York Times or The Washington Post.
  •     Create a reference to an Online Educational Research (OER) Commons page only when the materials are available for download directly (i.e., the materials are on the page and/or can be downloaded as PDFs or other files). When the “View Resource” button of an OER instead directs you to another website, create a reference to the specific webpage on that website where the materials can be retrieved.
  •     Do not create a reference or in-text citation for a whole website. To mention a website in general, and not any particular information on that site, provide the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses. For example, you might mention that you used a website to create a survey.
    • We created our survey using Qualtrics (