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HIS 2418 Modern Expressions of Asian Religions

What Am I Citing?

Before you do anything else, make sure you know what you are citing. Is it a book chapter, a journal article, or something else? How you cite it in Chicago Style will vary, based on what type of item it is.

Books

If a book has just one author, you will use the book citation example below, even if you are only using several pages of it. 

If a book has chapters or sections with different authors, cite each chapter or section that you use separately. Use the book chapter citation example below. To figure out if the book chapters have different authors, look at the catalog record for the book, and scroll down to the Table of Contents. If there are different names listed after each chapter, those are the authors for the different chapters.

Journal Articles

If you find something using one of the SPU library databases, it's most likely a journal article, and should be cited using the journal article example below.

Sometimes you can find journal articles on the Internet; if your item has a journal title on it somewhere, or there's a volume number or issue number, then it is likely a journal article.

If your item has a month and day along with a year on it, then it may be a newspaper article. See the journal articles section below for an example of how to cite a newspaper article.

Internet Resources

Items like blog posts, YouTube videos and podcasts can all be cited using Chicago Style. See below for examples of how to cite them, and be sure that you have working links in your citations.

Creating Notes

Footnotes in Chicago style are the preferred way to give in-text citations, so Chicago Style requires a footnote for every quote and paraphrase.

To make a footnote in Word, place your cursor at the end of the sentence where you are citing; click on references in the top bar to open the references menu; then click on "Insert Footnote."

 References menu in word including Footnotes section and Insert Footnote button

References menu in Word including Footnotes section and Insert Footnote button.

In Google Docs, put your cursor at the end of the sentence you are citing, then click on the Insert menu and scroll down to Footnote and click to add the footnote

Google Docs Insert Menu with Footnotes option at bottom

Google Docs Insert Menu with Footnote at the bottom.

Footnote Citations

Chicago footnotes are structured almost exactly like the bibliographic citations at the end of the paper, but there are two important differences.

First, the footnote will always give the author's name as first name last name, similar to how it would be written on a title page. Bibliographic citations always give the first author's name with the last name first.

Second, the footnote will always contain the page or pages of the material cited at the end of the entry.

Compare the Note and Bibliography entry below:

Note

8. Bret Hinsch, Women in Imperial China, (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016), 224.

Bibliography

Hinsch, Bret. Women in Imperial China. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016.

The first time you put a source in a footnote, you must include all the information. But if you cite the source again later, you can use a shortened form of the note that includes the author's last name, a shortened form of the title (often the first few words) and the page number, like this:

12. Hinsch, Women, 180.

Formatting a Bibliography

The bibliography comes at the end of your paper and is an alphabetical list of all the sources you have cited throughout. The section should be titled Bibliography - not Works Cited or anything similar.

Your citations should be organized alphabetically by the first author's last name, like this:

Fong, Grace S., and Ellen Widmer. The Inner Quarters and Beyond: Women Writers from Ming Through Qing. Boston: Brill, 2010.

Hinsch, Bret. Women in Imperial China. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016.

Yuan, Changying. "Southeast Flies the Peacock." In Writing Women in Modern China: An Anthology of Women's Literature from the Early Twentieth Century, edited by Amy D. Dooling, and Kristina M. Torgeson, 295-318. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Citing Books and Book Chapters

The examples below are correct for print books and e-books.

Citing a Book

When the entire book is written by one or two authors, you will cite the whole book, even if you only use a small part of it. Your citation should look like this:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Fong, Grace S., and Ellen Widmer. The Inner Quarters and Beyond: Women Writers from Ming Through Qing. Boston: Brill, 2010.

Note that any author's names after the first one will be rendered First Name Last Name. 

Citing a Chapter in a Book 

When each chapter in a book has a different author, cite each chapter separately. The author of the chapter and the chapter title come first in the citation. Your citation should look like this:

Chapter Author's Last Name, Chapter Author's First Name. "Chapter Title." In Title of Book, edited by Editor's First Name Last Name, Page Range. Publication City: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Yuan, Changying. "Southeast Flies the Peacock." In Writing Women in Modern China: An Anthology of Women's Literature from the Early Twentieth Century, edited by Amy D. Dooling, and Kristina M. Torgeson, 295-318. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Citing Journal Articles

Articles from journals or newspapers found in databases or online include much of the same information, but there are some slight differences.

Journal Article from a Database

The citations for articles found in databases include a stable URL or the database name. Most databases include a stable URL, but it is not the one in the address bar. Look in the navigation bars to the left or right of the article information. Your citation should look like this:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume,  no. issue number (Year): Pages, accessed date, stable URL or Database name. 

Komatsu, Kayoko. "Spirituality and Women in Japan." Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 44, no. 1 (2017): 123-138, accessed February 1, 2021, JSTOR.

Online Journal Article

For articles not found through a database, that is, found through a search engine like Google, the URL or DOI are extremely important to include. Make sure that your link works! Your citation should look like this:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume, no. issue number (Year): Pages, accessed date. DOI or URL.

Hamdon, Syamimi Waznah, and Fitriani Bintang Timur. "Feminism Against Beauty Standards in South Korea: Force Creates Resistance." Journal of Techno Social 12, no. 2 (2020): 69-74. Accessed February 1, 2021 https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/JTS/article/view/8004.

Online Newspaper Article

For articles from newspapers, include the entire date of publication - month, day, and year. The URL can be shortened after the first single forward slash. Your citation should look like this:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Month, Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. DOI or URL

Ives, Mike. "As Myanmar Democratizes, Women's Rights Lag Behind." The New York Times, May 16, 2017. Accessed February 10, 2021. http://www.newyorktimes.com/.

If no author is given, list the newspaper name as the author:

The Independent. "Myanmar Coup: Women Shot in Head as Police Open Fire at Protests." The Independent, February 10, 2021. Accessed February 10, 2021.http:// www.independent.co.uk/.

Citing Internet Sources

When citing sources from the Internet, including items like blog posts, YouTube videos, or websites, be sure to include authors' names, the date you accessed the site, and a DOI or URL. 

Sometimes an organization can be an author, for example, the World Health Organization. If no person or organization is listed as the author of an item, list the site's sponsor as the author, for example, The Smithsonian or The Wing Luke Museum. 

Video

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Video." Medium, Duration. Posted by Publisher. Date of online publication. Accessed date. URL.

PBS NewsHour. "Remembering Wangari Maathai, First African Woman to Win Nobel Prize." YouTube Video, 8:40. Posted by PBS. September 26, 2011. Accessed February 1, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oKjFslPNeLU

Full Website

Author's Last Name, First Name OR Organization Name. "Title of Work." Title of Site. Sponsor. Month Day Year of publication. Accessed date. URL.

The Wing Luke Museum. "Hear Us Rise: APA Voices in Feminism."  The Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience. 2020. Accessed February 1, 2021. http://www.wingluke.org/single-exhibit/?mep_event=3856&t=c