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WRI 1100: Walker

IEEE Style

For a brief overview and examples of specific reference types, also refer to pages 237-242 of your course textbook - D. Beer and D. McMurrey, A Guide to Writing as an Engineer. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.

In-text Citation

Each source is referred to in the body of the paper by a full sized number within brackets. 

  • The first source you cite is given [1], the second, [2].  The same number is then used to refer to that source each time it is used.
  • Bracketed numbers go within the punctuation.
  • When citing multiple sources, list each number separately within its own brackets, for example: [1], [3].

For example:

"...end of the line for my research [13]."

"This theory was first put forward in 1987 [1]."

"Scholtz [2] has argued that..."

"Several recent studies [3], [4], [15], [16] have suggested that...."

"For example, see [7]."

(examples taken from Murdock University's IEEE Style LibGuide)

Creating the Reference List

The references should only include items cited in the paper.  

  • Center the word References at the top of the reference page
  • List all references numerically in the order they were cited in the paper.
  • Include the bracketed number at the beginning of each reference; each reference should have a hanging indent
  • Authors names are listed as first initial, middle initial (if used), last name. for example: C. Fry
  • Items with more than 6 authors should list the first author and then say et al. (et al. is a Latin abbreviation meaning "and others")

For example:


[1] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.
[2] L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.
[3] H. K. Edwards and V. Sridhar, "Analysis of software requirements engineering exercises in a global virtual team setup," Journal of Global Information Management, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 21+, April-June 2005. [Online]. Available: Academic OneFile, [Accessed May 31, 2005].

(examples taken from the University of Pittsburg's IEEE Style LibGuide)