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Citation Styles: AMA

AMA Style


Reference Style Overview
The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)  follows the AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed., for references and citations.

Number references consecutively in the order they are mentioned in the text. References should be cited in text, tables, and figures with superscript Arabic numerals. The superscript should follow the sentence’s  period immediately. The superscripts should be outside periods and commas, but inside colon and semi-colons. References cited only in a table or figure are acceptable if they are in sequence with references cited in the text.


The Reference List


List everything you cited in your paper by number at the end under the title “References.” Note: Do not use the footnote function in Microsoft Word for references. Include references at the end of the manuscript.  In your reference list at the end:


  •  Individual references should include all authors if there are six or less, otherwise list the first three authors, followed by "et al."
  • References should be typed double space and follow the paper's main text.
  • Published and updated dates, if available, and access dates for Web sites cited must be included. (Examples of different types of references are provided below.)
  • Inclusive page numbers must be provided for all periodical articles cited. Page numbers are not required when an entire book is cited, but specific page numbers are needed when only a chapter or section of a book is cited. Provide a page number for all material quoted directly from any source. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and adequacy of all references cited in their manuscript.

Examples of common types of References

(Adapted from:‚Äč)

This guide demonstrates how to compile cited references in an AMA-styled reference list. See chapter 3 of the AMA Manual of Style (10th edition) for complete guidelines. The SPU Library has a copy of this manual in the Reference Section at call# REF R 119.A533 2007


Basic Article – Scholarly Print Journal

   [journal article with more than six authors]:

Rainer S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al. Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 gene mutations cause paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(7):1025-1029.


[journal article with six or fewer authors]:

Witbracht MG, Loan MV, Adams SH, Keim NL, Laugero KD. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interacted to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week, meal-controlled, weight loss intervention.  J Nutr. 2013;143:46-52.


Full-Text Article from an Electronic Database such as CINAHL

There is no such category in AMA citation style (see 3.4 in the style guide for example). An article retrieved from a library database should be cited as a print journal article if it exists in that format and is equivalent to the full-text article being used. Include DOI if available.


Article From an Electronic Journal (from publisher’s web site)

Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2):106-107. Accessed June 1, 2004

Kitajima TS, Kawashima SA, Watanabe Y. The conserved kinetochore protein shugoshin protects centromeric cohesion during meiosis. Nature. 2004;427(6974):510-517. doi:10.1038/nature02312.


Entire Book

Weedon D. Skin Pathology. London, England: Churchill Livingstone; 2002.


Chapter in a Book

Solensky R. Drug allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockey P, ed. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004:585-606.


Edited Book with No Author

Balducci L, Extermann M, eds. Biological Basis of Geriatric Oncology. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2005.


Entry in Online Encyclopedia, Dictionary, etc.

Maceration. In: Koren H. Illustrated Dictionary and Resource Dictionary of Environmental & Occupational Health. CRCnetBASE Website. isbn/9781420032239. Accessed September 18, 2012.



Web Sites

Interim guidance about avian influenza A (H5N1) for US citizens living abroad. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. http://www. Published December 1, 2000. Updated November 18, 2005. Accessed December 6, 2008.


Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews:

Hemilä H, Chalker E, Treacy B, Douglas B. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. May 10, 2009;(4):CD000980.  doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub3.


Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Library:

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Library. How effective is MNT provided by Registered Dietitians in the management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes? Accessed December 23, 2011.