Creating copies of course readings in situations other than Coursepacks (e.g., supplemental or newly-published articles that you wish to make available during the course of the quarter) may qualify as Fair Use. The SPU Statement of Policy on Photocopying Copyrighted Materials, part of the SPU Faculty Handbook, has guidance on applying Fair Use when making copies for classroom use.
Obtaining copyright permission is the process of getting consent from a copyright owner to use their work. This is also called licensing -- by giving you permission, the copyright owner grants you a license to use their work in a particular way.
Whether or not you need to get permission to use a work will depend on a number of factors, outlined in the steps below. Even if not legally required, getting permission can sometimes be a practical way to lower your risks and avoid potential copyright disputes.
Image Credit: Francesco Gonin, from I promessi sposi. Source: commons.wikimedia.org
Depending upon the work, identifying the copyright owner can range from straightforward to complex to impossible. The author is the first owner of the copyright, but the author may sell or transfer the copyright to someone else. For many works, the publisher rather than the author is the copyright holder. You can often identify the owner through a copyright notice such as "© 2010 SPU Press." However, it is important to be aware that a copyright notice is not a legal requirement for a work to be protected by copyright -- not all copyrighted works will have a notice. If further research is required, try the following:
Copyright ownership information for works registered with the U.S. Copyright Office after January 1, 1978 can be searched using the Copyright Office's Online Catalog. For pre-1978 works, the Office's registration records are available only in hard copy form. The Copyright Office publication How to Investigate the Copyright Status of Work (PDF) has information on how to search the Office's records or pay a fee to have the Office conduct a search for you. As with copyright notices, registration with the Copyright Office is not required for the owner to receive copyright protection. A work may still be under copyright even if it was never registered.
In some cases, you will not be able to determine who the copyright owner is, even after extensive research. If this is the case, you have on your hands a so-called "orphan work." Although the Copyright Office has expressed its support for new legislation to deal with the problem of orphan works, this has not yet come to pass. In the meantime, there are several Possible Solutions to evaluate if you cannot find the owner.
Image Credits: author images, Prints & Photographs Online Catalog, Library of Congress; Title: 1963 - Beatle's first Music Sheet Album - Side 9 by Klaus Hiltscher via Flickr.com, Wellcome Library London Ephemera Collection
Once you have identified the copyright owner, you then need to determine the substance of your permission request. It is important that your request clearly describe the scope of how you intend to use the work, otherwise the permission you receive may fall short of meeting your needs. For example, if you ask to use a work in a conference presentation, the permission may not include making the presentation available online, or publishing it in conference proceedings. Be sure to include all the rights you anticipate needing, and include alternatives if you are unsure of the format (e.g. print, DVD, web) in which the work will be used. If you will be using the work only for noncommercial, educational purposes, include this information as well -- many copyright holders will be more willing to grant permission if they understand that their work will be used for education.
The sample letters below can serve as your starting point:
Lastly, be sure to keep a copy of all permissions and license agreements! Having a written record can be invaluable if questions or disputes arise down the road, and allow you to demonstrate to others that you have the legal right to use the owner's work (particularly publishers, who will often require written proof that permission has been obtained).
Although getting written permission from the copyright owner is your best bet, permission does not have to be in writing. If you aren't able to get something in writing, document your conversation. You may also want to send a letter of confirmation to the owner setting out your agreement.
In some cases, you may never get a response from the copyright holder -- you may never even be able to identify who they are or how to contact them! It can be difficult to know how to proceed when you reach a dead end. Unfortunately, no matter how diligently you have tried to get permission, these efforts cannot completely eliminate the risk of infringement should you proceed to use the work. Columbia's Copyright Advisory Office has put together a helpful list of Possible Solutions for when you find yourself in this all-too-common situation.
Image Credit: Vintage File Cabinets, victoriabernal. Source: flickr.