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FCS 4367: Experimental Foods: Assignment

Types of Annotations

Annotations are any kind of notes or comments you make on a piece of writing.

In diigo, you are adding sticky notes and comments to your articles to point out relevant information and decide how you will use it.

For your annotated bibliography, you are adding a summary and evaluation to each item in an JAND/AMA formatted list of resources.

Annotated Bibliography

"What's an Annotated Bibliography?" Video from Brock University Library (St. Catherine's, Ontario) 1:42

Your Assignment (see full explanation & details on Canvas)

  • Reference Information.  List the source using the JAND (AMA) format. You will appreciate having the formatting done early on so that all you will have to do is copy/paste the information into your reference section later.


  • Summary Paragraph. Provide a summary of the research question or paper topic (hypotheses and objectives may be used), methods of analysis (if appropriate), results, conclusions and recommendations. This will help you remember some of your key annotations in Diigo.


  • Link to Annotated Article in Diigo.  Provide a link to each of your annotated articles in Diigo.  There are several ways in which you can do this:

    • Add me to your Diigo group.  All you would need to add in this section of your annotated bibliography is the group URL.

    • You can create a link to each article using the "Share" feature in Diigo.

Example (156 words)

(diigo link:

Nurul Ain O, Marina AM, Sakinah H. The effect of avocado puree as fat replacer on the physical quality of muffin. Malays Appl Biol. 2016;45(2):11-16.

               Concerned about the amount of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids that lead to life threatening illnesses, the researchers sought to reduce fat in a muffin with avocado puree. There is a very detailed account of the recipe preparation, including the different percentages of avocado puree used in each batch as a replacement for butter. The muffins were measured, analyzed for texture and color then the data was put through a statistical analysis program. The results showed that overall the avocado did not affect the batter in any way. The muffins had a high water content, but there was no difference in their chewiness, crumb factor, or hardness. The avocado did change the color of the muffins, however. In the end, the avocado was deemed a suitable fat replacement, but the researchers suggested that further testing should look at shelf life and sensory perception to see if this substitution is practical and acceptable to consumers.

Literature Review

When researchers begin to think about a topic to study, they spend some time finding out what has already been studied in their area of interest. They search for articles and reports that provide information on the history, background, key findings, related issues, and knowledge gaps related to their research.

Understanding what information is already out there on a topic helps the researchers focus their own study while placing it in the proper context of current and past research. This process is the literature review. The researchers are going over what has already been written on their topic.

Usually, when they are publishing the results of their own study in a journal article, the researchers begin with a short literature review which now provides background and context for the readers, helping them to understand the relevance and importance of the current study.

Watch these videos for further explanations:

Defining the Literature Review (3:11)

Types of Literature Reviews (1:44)

Example of a Literature Review from a Journal Article